History and development of physical education and sport

first_imgThroughout history, sports have played a variety of important functions in society as a form of recreation; preparation for war or the hunt; or later, as a substitute for war. Sports have undergone many changes; some have stayed much the same (e.g. wrestling); while others have adapted with the times. New sports are always being invented and developed. Medieval Sports After the fall of Rome came the Dark Ages. It was a time of much religious change and political conflict around the world. There was increase in wealth and interest in the arts and the sciences. In Europe, social class determined the sport in which one participated. Royalty and the aristocracy hunted, played cricket, watched horseracing, and fenced. The most famous sports in medieval times were jousting on horseback with lances. This was done by knights practising their fighting skills in mock battles. Sports were mostly associated with the Church and were played by peasants on holy days and festivals. An activity such as mob football was a chance for the entire village to get together and let off steam. The games had very few rules, if any, and were more of a free for all and were not played very often because they could be extremely violent and people even died. One of the oldest recorded forms of sports was bull-leaping in the Greek island of Crete, where slaves jumped over the horns of a bull. The ancient Greeks were lovers of sport and taught it to their children at school. The main activities were wrestling, running, jumping, discus and javelin, ball games, gymnastics, and riding as well as military skills. Sporting competitions took place regularly as part of religious festivals. It was also in Greece that the Olympic Games started in 776 BC and were linked to religious festivals. Each athlete had to take part in all the events. Many of the sports were linked to the training given to soldiers, and many such as discus and javelin are still in the modern Olympic Games. Roman sports were influenced by the Greeks, but they added their own emphasis. Chariot racing and gladiator fights were held at large sporting events. Individuals or teams of men would fight animals or each other to death. The Roman Games were big occasions, usually paid for by the emperor, making them popular with the people. The gladiator fights were extremely violent and were normally done by slaves and prisoners. Roman sporting activities also included animal hunts, wrestling, running, boxing, pentathlon (which consisted of running, jumping, discus, spear throwing, and wrestling) and pancratium, which was a combination of wrestling, boxing, and martial arts. The competitors were called athletae and trained full time as professionals. They became celebrities in the Roman society and enjoyed many privileges. Industrial Revolution At the start of the 19th century, sports became more organised and the development of modern sports started. Machinery was developed and used in the production of goods. This resulted in movement of the population from rural areas to towns to seek employment in these industries, and this had a great impact on sport. There was not enough space in the industrialised towns to play the sports they knew from their villages. Also, working for long hours did not leave them with much energy to play sports they knew from their villages. The village games died and new sports took their place. This new breed of labourers became watchers of sports instead of participators. The development of railways allowed for spectators and teams to travel around the country to watch and compete in sports, leading to the development of competitive leagues and cup competitions.center_img 20th Century Several factors have had an effect on sports since the start of the 20th century. More persons are not only playing, but also watching. Sports have become more organised. New rules have been developed, and some sports revised to formed new ones. The value of games on the development of character was recognised as learned sportsmanship and leadership, and a willingness to abide by rules emerged. One of the most significant developments is the growth of televised sports. Sports will continue to change and develop in the future as technology progresses. The standard of sports has continued to be influenced by social change, commercialisation, media, sponsorship, government, and education. – Send queries and questions to: jenelbro119@hotmail.com. Sports in ancient timeslast_img read more

Viewpoints CHIP Funding Needed GOPs Flawed Plan To Make The Pill OTC

first_imgThe New York Times: Children’s Health Insurance At A CrossroadsFederal financing for a beneficial health insurance program for low-income children, known as the Children’s Health Insurance Program or CHIP, will run out next year unless Congress agrees to extend it. Bills are pending in both the House and the Senate to extend financing for four years, to 2019. Congress should approve the extension in the lame-duck session after the midterm elections so that families and state officials will know what the future holds. The program needs to be maintained amid uncertainty as to whether other good coverage will be available for these children (9/21).  The Washington Post: Two Ideas That Could Overcome Political Gridlock There is a credible case that a Republican-controlled Senate could prove more productive. The new, tenuous majority, with an eye on 2016, would want to prove itself and would have more leverage over recalcitrant House Republicans. … What could get done that Obama might sign? On two pressing issues — paying for badly needed infrastructure and further controlling the rise in health-care costs — two leading Democratic think tanks have proposed intriguing, bipartisan ways forward (Ruth Marcus, 9/20).The Washington Post: Over-The-Counter Availability Of ‘The Pill’ Wouldn’t Be A Panacea You know it’s a weird political season when several Republican senatorial candidates are trumpeting their support for making oral contraceptives available without a prescription — and Planned Parenthood’s political arm is running TV attack ads against them. Obviously, the GOP is trying to deflect the Democratic charge that it is waging a “war on women,” while Democrats and their allies are determined to make it stick (9/21).Los Angeles Times: New Study Shows That The Savings From ‘Tort Reform’ Are Mythical “Tort reform,” which is usually billed as the answer to “frivolous malpractice lawsuits,” has been a central plank in the Republican program for healthcare reform for decades. The notion has lived on despite copious evidence that that the so-called defensive medicine practiced by doctors merely to stave off lawsuits accounts for, at best, 2% to 3% of U.S. healthcare costs. As for “frivolous lawsuits,” they’re a problem that exists mostly in the minds of conservatives and the medical establishment (Michael Hiltzik, 9/20). The New York Times: In Context, Health Premium Increases Don’t Actually Look Like Increases Based on data available so far, we reported last week that the average premiums for last year’s most popular plans would rise 8.4 percent, but that people willing to switch plans could get much better deals — an average 1 percent increase, and even decreases in some markets. But is 8.4 percent an alarming increase or a good deal for a plan you like? Is a 1 percent increase a disappointment or a terrific bargain? To put both increases in context, we’ve assembled some historical data on insurance markets that existed before the Affordable Care Act (Margot Sanger-Katz, 9/22). The Washington Post: Virginia Republicans Reject Any And All Suggestions To Expand Health Coverage The opposition of Virginia’s GOP lawmakers to any form of Medicaid expansion — under any conditions or timetable or permutation — has assumed its own convoluted logic. They are against using federal funds to insure poor Virginians mainly because the other side — namely, President Obama — is for it. The blatant bankruptcy of the Republican position was on display in Richmond this week, where legislators met in special session to debate the Medicaid expansion — despite the fact that the GOP-controlled House of Delegates had dug in its heels …. They have advanced no legislation, nor even the seed of an idea, that would provide a basic safety net for their low-income constituents who must deal with their health problems by visiting emergency rooms. That is a costly and inefficient means of providing health care (9/19).The New York Times: Can a Computer Replace Your Doctor? Silicon Valley is bringing a host of new data-driven technologies to health care, many of them with enormous potential. But before we rush to measure every human attribute in real time, it would be a good idea to ask: When is more data actually useful to promote and ensure better health? And when does technology add true value to health care? The results have been mixed (Elisabeth Rosenthal, 9/20). The Wall Street Journal: What Health Issues Will Millennials Face That Their Parents Didn’t? New technologies, economic shifts and demographic trends have changed the way millennials manage work and play. What about health? To get some perspective, we asked a group of health-care professionals this question: What health issue will millennials have to deal with that their parents didn’t? (9/19). The Washington Post: The Challenge Of Fighting Antibiotic-Resistant Superbugs When some of the best science minds in the United States say a problem has become “dire,” requires “urgent attention,” is growing at an “alarming rate” and has become “a crisis” that threatens medicine, economic growth, public health, agriculture and national security, it might be wise to listen. That is what President Obama’s outside science advisers told him Thursday about the rise of antibiotic resistance, the growing tendency of bacteria to overcome the antibiotics that are a bedrock of modern medicine (9/20). The New York Times: A Cancer Battle We Can Win The war against cancer can be confusing, with providers, insurers and policy makers debating the effectiveness of treatments, prevention programs and research. But there is one significant victory within our grasp. There is, increasingly, a consensus that CT screening for lung cancer can save thousands of lives each year (Andrea McKee and Andrew Salner, 9/21).Health Affairs: Different Parts Of The Same Elephant: Medicaid Research And State Expansion Decisions Debates about Medicaid expansion betray an underlying fundamental disagreement not only about the Affordable Care Act (ACA) but about the Medicaid program itself. Medicaid, unlike Medicare, lacks the near-universal buy-in to the fundamental value of the program to beneficiaries’ health and well-being. As a means-tested (read welfare-related) program, Medicaid raises concerns and disagreements regarding work (dis)incentives, labor market effects, the “deserving” poor, and how this relates to the construct of health care as a right and a public good (Donna Friedsam, 9/19). Viewpoints: CHIP Funding Needed; GOP’s Flawed Plan To Make ‘The Pill’ OTC; Millenials’ Health Issues This is part of the KHN Morning Briefing, a summary of health policy coverage from major news organizations. Sign up for an email subscription.last_img read more