History and development of physical education and sport

first_imgThroughout history, sports have played a variety of important functions in society as a form of recreation; preparation for war or the hunt; or later, as a substitute for war. Sports have undergone many changes; some have stayed much the same (e.g. wrestling); while others have adapted with the times. New sports are always being invented and developed. Medieval Sports After the fall of Rome came the Dark Ages. It was a time of much religious change and political conflict around the world. There was increase in wealth and interest in the arts and the sciences. In Europe, social class determined the sport in which one participated. Royalty and the aristocracy hunted, played cricket, watched horseracing, and fenced. The most famous sports in medieval times were jousting on horseback with lances. This was done by knights practising their fighting skills in mock battles. Sports were mostly associated with the Church and were played by peasants on holy days and festivals. An activity such as mob football was a chance for the entire village to get together and let off steam. The games had very few rules, if any, and were more of a free for all and were not played very often because they could be extremely violent and people even died. One of the oldest recorded forms of sports was bull-leaping in the Greek island of Crete, where slaves jumped over the horns of a bull. The ancient Greeks were lovers of sport and taught it to their children at school. The main activities were wrestling, running, jumping, discus and javelin, ball games, gymnastics, and riding as well as military skills. Sporting competitions took place regularly as part of religious festivals. It was also in Greece that the Olympic Games started in 776 BC and were linked to religious festivals. Each athlete had to take part in all the events. Many of the sports were linked to the training given to soldiers, and many such as discus and javelin are still in the modern Olympic Games. Roman sports were influenced by the Greeks, but they added their own emphasis. Chariot racing and gladiator fights were held at large sporting events. Individuals or teams of men would fight animals or each other to death. The Roman Games were big occasions, usually paid for by the emperor, making them popular with the people. The gladiator fights were extremely violent and were normally done by slaves and prisoners. Roman sporting activities also included animal hunts, wrestling, running, boxing, pentathlon (which consisted of running, jumping, discus, spear throwing, and wrestling) and pancratium, which was a combination of wrestling, boxing, and martial arts. The competitors were called athletae and trained full time as professionals. They became celebrities in the Roman society and enjoyed many privileges. Industrial Revolution At the start of the 19th century, sports became more organised and the development of modern sports started. Machinery was developed and used in the production of goods. This resulted in movement of the population from rural areas to towns to seek employment in these industries, and this had a great impact on sport. There was not enough space in the industrialised towns to play the sports they knew from their villages. Also, working for long hours did not leave them with much energy to play sports they knew from their villages. The village games died and new sports took their place. This new breed of labourers became watchers of sports instead of participators. The development of railways allowed for spectators and teams to travel around the country to watch and compete in sports, leading to the development of competitive leagues and cup competitions.center_img 20th Century Several factors have had an effect on sports since the start of the 20th century. More persons are not only playing, but also watching. Sports have become more organised. New rules have been developed, and some sports revised to formed new ones. The value of games on the development of character was recognised as learned sportsmanship and leadership, and a willingness to abide by rules emerged. One of the most significant developments is the growth of televised sports. Sports will continue to change and develop in the future as technology progresses. The standard of sports has continued to be influenced by social change, commercialisation, media, sponsorship, government, and education. – Send queries and questions to: jenelbro119@hotmail.com. Sports in ancient timeslast_img read more

All-Stars stir the Vegas scene

first_imgMaloof has had a big hand in it. He said he and his brother, Joe, were talking about the idea of a neutral site All-Star game and pitched the thought of it being in their city to commissioner David Stern, who told them to bring it to Mayor Oscar Goodman on one condition: No betting on the game in the sports books. Being an exhibition that doesn’t get heavy action anyway, that was no problem. “If you bet the NBA All-Star game, you might as well get a life,” Gavin Maloof said. Besides, after all those parties – Maloof said his casino will host about a dozen, featuring everyone from Shaquille O’Neal to Dwyane Wade to Diddy – who can predict which players will have energy left to play well Sunday night? “There ain’t going to be no sleep, I’ll tell you that,” Wade said. “There’s going to be a lot going on.” The timing of this experiment couldn’t be better. After an occasionally rocky first half that featured headaches from the ball to the brawl, the NBA could use a few days away to blow off some steam. Photos NBA All Star LAS VEGAS – Even a city that spares no expense for a good time has never seen anything like this. The NBA All-Star game on Sunday may be meaningless and after three nights of parties, might be sloppy. But try telling that to people paying top dollar for a chance to see it. Is there a better place for that than Sin City? “I got married in Vegas a couple of summers ago and it was pretty crazy, so I can only imagine what it is going to be like with all the celebrities and an event this big,” said Washington’s Caron Butler, a first-time All-Star. Goodman called the combination of NBA stars and his city’s entertainers “a perfect honeymoon.” The players were to share the Sunday night stage with Las Vegas entertainment fixtures Wayne Newton, Danny Gans and performers from Cirque du Soleil, all scheduled to perform that night. Last year, Goodman said the festivities would rival “the heyday of a Tyson fight.” Given a year to reconsider, the mayor has amended his prediction. “As far as the expectations for this weekend, it outdoes any championship fight that I’ve experienced here,” he said. “And I’ve lived here since 1964 and I’ve seen the Alis and the Listons and the Foremans and the Fosters and the Tysons. “The buzz here is extraordinary. The parties that are being arranged at this point in time are extraordinary. It’s just going to be a weekend and a couple of days of nonstop excitement and electricity and neon and glitz and glamour, and it’s going to be everything that Las Vegas is all about.” The predictions for the weekend are staggering. Besides the prices for a ticket at the Thomas & Mack Center, Las Vegas officials estimate there will be 25,000 visitors who will generate more than $26 million in non-gaming economic impact, as the NBA shares the holiday weekend crowd with a fashion industry convention and the Chinese New Year. “There aren’t many cities where the All-Star weekend would be a relatively small event in terms of the number of people involved, but Las Vegas is such a city,” Stern said. “That said, I understand that in terms of the demand for tickets and the like, it’s been the biggest event in their history.” So how is anyone supposed to get any rest during this All-Star “break?” “Ah, you don’t,” LeBron James said. “Let’s see, Tuesday I can sleep all day in Toronto and be ready for Wednesday. I’m not going to get any sleep (in Vegas).” Green, Kapono win Boston’s Gerald Green capped All-Star Saturday with an acrobatic leap over a table to win the dunk contest, and Miami’s Jason Kapono fell just short of an event record while winning the 3-Point Shootout. Green, the Celtics’ 20-year-old swingman, performed his two most memorable dunks in the first round before that final leap over a table bearing the All-Star game logo for a windmill jam. He first made an electrifying two-handed slam on an alley-oop pass off the side of the backboard from teammate Paul Pierce in the first round. Green then jumped over fellow finalist Nate Robinson while wearing the No. 7 Celtics jersey of 1991 dunk champion Dee Brown – and shielding his eyes in the crook of his elbow in an homage to Brown’s memorable no-look dunk. Green easily won over the five-man judges’ panel of Michael Jordan, Julius Erving, Dominique Wilkins, Kobe Bryant and Vince Carter – particularly when Robinson, the diminutive 2006 champion, missed nine straight times on his final dunk before finally landing a one-handed spin move. Green and Robinson eliminated Orlando’s Dwight Howard and Chicago’s Tyrus Thomas in the first round, even though the 6-foot-11 Howard came up with the most original move. Earlier, Artesia High graduate Kapono beat stars Gilbert Arenas and Dirk Nowitzki with a final-round 24 – just one shy of the event record. Kapono, the fourth-year pro who finally blossomed with the Heat this season, tied Mark Price’s final-round record and fell just one point shy of Craig Hodges’ overall mark with an impressive performance leading off the last round. “It’s something that I dreamed of as a kid,” Kapono said. “You watch Larry Bird and all those guys shoot, and obviously I learned early on that I wasn’t ever going to be in on the slam dunk part.” Kapono leads the NBA this season with 56 percent shooting on 3-pointers while averaging 11.1 points per game. He has finally found an NBA role as an outside shooting specialist after playing for three teams in his first three seasons. 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!center_img “This is the biggest event that ever hit Las Vegas,” said Gavin Maloof, whose family owns the Sacramento Kings and the Palms, where the players are staying. “No question about it, bigger than any fight. Let me tell you why. The tickets, they’re brokering the tickets 10 rows up, five rows up for $27,000 a ticket. “There’s never been an event that I know of in the history of the world that goes for $27,000. I don’t care if it’s World Cup, I don’t care if it’s the Stones, Super Bowl. There’s never been an event that a broker has charged that kind of an amount for any ticket, not that I know of. It’s just incredible.” last_img read more