History and development of physical education and sport

first_imgThroughout history, sports have played a variety of important functions in society as a form of recreation; preparation for war or the hunt; or later, as a substitute for war. Sports have undergone many changes; some have stayed much the same (e.g. wrestling); while others have adapted with the times. New sports are always being invented and developed. Medieval Sports After the fall of Rome came the Dark Ages. It was a time of much religious change and political conflict around the world. There was increase in wealth and interest in the arts and the sciences. In Europe, social class determined the sport in which one participated. Royalty and the aristocracy hunted, played cricket, watched horseracing, and fenced. The most famous sports in medieval times were jousting on horseback with lances. This was done by knights practising their fighting skills in mock battles. Sports were mostly associated with the Church and were played by peasants on holy days and festivals. An activity such as mob football was a chance for the entire village to get together and let off steam. The games had very few rules, if any, and were more of a free for all and were not played very often because they could be extremely violent and people even died. One of the oldest recorded forms of sports was bull-leaping in the Greek island of Crete, where slaves jumped over the horns of a bull. The ancient Greeks were lovers of sport and taught it to their children at school. The main activities were wrestling, running, jumping, discus and javelin, ball games, gymnastics, and riding as well as military skills. Sporting competitions took place regularly as part of religious festivals. It was also in Greece that the Olympic Games started in 776 BC and were linked to religious festivals. Each athlete had to take part in all the events. Many of the sports were linked to the training given to soldiers, and many such as discus and javelin are still in the modern Olympic Games. Roman sports were influenced by the Greeks, but they added their own emphasis. Chariot racing and gladiator fights were held at large sporting events. Individuals or teams of men would fight animals or each other to death. The Roman Games were big occasions, usually paid for by the emperor, making them popular with the people. The gladiator fights were extremely violent and were normally done by slaves and prisoners. Roman sporting activities also included animal hunts, wrestling, running, boxing, pentathlon (which consisted of running, jumping, discus, spear throwing, and wrestling) and pancratium, which was a combination of wrestling, boxing, and martial arts. The competitors were called athletae and trained full time as professionals. They became celebrities in the Roman society and enjoyed many privileges. Industrial Revolution At the start of the 19th century, sports became more organised and the development of modern sports started. Machinery was developed and used in the production of goods. This resulted in movement of the population from rural areas to towns to seek employment in these industries, and this had a great impact on sport. There was not enough space in the industrialised towns to play the sports they knew from their villages. Also, working for long hours did not leave them with much energy to play sports they knew from their villages. The village games died and new sports took their place. This new breed of labourers became watchers of sports instead of participators. The development of railways allowed for spectators and teams to travel around the country to watch and compete in sports, leading to the development of competitive leagues and cup competitions.center_img 20th Century Several factors have had an effect on sports since the start of the 20th century. More persons are not only playing, but also watching. Sports have become more organised. New rules have been developed, and some sports revised to formed new ones. The value of games on the development of character was recognised as learned sportsmanship and leadership, and a willingness to abide by rules emerged. One of the most significant developments is the growth of televised sports. Sports will continue to change and develop in the future as technology progresses. The standard of sports has continued to be influenced by social change, commercialisation, media, sponsorship, government, and education. – Send queries and questions to: jenelbro119@hotmail.com. Sports in ancient timeslast_img read more

Cappry Rovers continue excellent run of form with win over Bonagee

first_imgCAPPRY ROVERS NEWS: CAPPRY ROVERSCappry Rovers 3-0 Bonagee UnitedCappry Rovers secured the points when they overcame Bonagee United by virtue of the 3-0 score line at a wet and windy Cappry Park.Cappry took the game to the visitors from the start when at the 7th minute they hit the post from a free kick. Cappry made the break through in the 10th minute when Calvin Bradley scored with a shot from twenty yards. Bonagee upped their game in search of the equaliser but couldn’t find a way through a strong Cappry defence. Cappry created a few more chances but couldn’t  score. Cappry upped their game in the second half in search of the second goal and it arrived in the 58th minute following a corner, the ball fell to NP McDaid  at the back post and he scored from close range. Patrick McNulty sealed the points for Cappry in the 71st minute when he won the ball and blasted to the top of the net passed the advancing keeper. Cappry could have scored again but the Bonagee keeper made a good save. Best for Cappry NP McDaid and Patrick McNulty. Graham Cullen was best for Bonagee. Referee Liam McLaughlin.CAPPRY ROVERS RESERVESThe visitors to Cappry Park got off to a strong start putting pressure on the home team but it didn’t take long for Cappry to turn things around with a few missed goal opportunities from Colm Melaugh and NP McDaid. St. Catherine’s had opportunities too but could not find the back of the net, along with a denied penalty shout when one of the Killybeg’s wingers going down in a challenge outside the box. Cappry had the majority of possession in the first half but were just unable to capitalise from their efforts leaving the game scoreless at half-time.St. Catherine’s came out battling in the 2nd half putting the Cappry defence under pressure but were denied by a couple of fine saves from Paddy Friel in goals. The game play went end to end with both teams trying to break the deadlock when a fine strike from midfielder Shane Laverty in the 68th minute but the home team ahead. 3 minutes later, Cappry added to their toll when Shane O’Donnell headed in the 2nd goal. It didn’t stop there when the St. Catherine’s keeper stopped a shot from Colm Melaugh that came back out to Conor Laverty who buried it in the back of the net from outside the box making it 3-0 to the home side. St. Catherine’s didn’t give up the fight as they kept the pressure on to break though the Cappry defence but fine performances from Conor Scanlon and Darren Bonner held the defence intact. Things got worse for the visitors when a ball played to Kyle O’Meara on the left wing lead to him pushing up and swinging a superb cross into the box for Gerard Melaugh to finish in style scoring Cappry’s 4th goal on the 84th minute and thus seeing out the game. A strong finish for Cappry with performances all round.CAPPRY ROVERS U16’sCappry Rovers travelled to Letterkenny to play Ballyraine Utd on Saturday and came back home with the 3 points. Joel Bradley Walsh scored for Cappry with the only goal of the game.CAPPRY ROVERS U12’sOur U12’s were back in league action on Saturday when they travelled to Lagan Harps and continued their good run with a 2-1 victory. Mark Mbuli and Daniel Marley scoring the Cappry goals.CAPPRY COLTS U12’sThe Colts also continued their good run when the ran out comprehensive 6-0 winners over Fintown Harps Colts. Niall Ryan scored 4 goals with Eoin McGonagle and Odhran Quigley Doherty getting a goal a piece. This was an excellent performance for the lads and it shows that the hard work is paying off.CAPPRY ROVERS U8’sCappry travelled to Convoy on Friday evening last to take part in a football blitz which was hosted by Convoy Arsenal. Cappry took 25 children and they all got loads of football. Thanks to Convoy for hosting the blitz.CAPPRY ROVERS MEGA DRAWCappry are holding a mega draw where you could win a Skoda Octavia Ambition along with some more great prizes. Also included with each ticket is a 20% off voucher for McElhinney’s store which should come in handy coming up to Christmas. The draw will take place 29th December. Tickets are priced at €20 and all funds raised will go towards an Astro turf pitch. If you’re interested in a ticket contact Danny 087 7797581. Cappry Rovers continue excellent run of form with win over Bonagee was last modified: October 18th, 2016 by Mark ForkerShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:BONAGEE UNITEDCappry RoverssoccerSportlast_img read more